This item in the series of old papers reprinted under the heading "Brewing! Have things changed so much?" was first published in 1972 and describes the development and production of beers brewed in the USA which differed from the standard pale lager style which has long predominated in that country. The most important of these was the style known as "malt liquor", a strong beer which is fairly lightly hopped but has a distinctive flavour in which estery and vinous notes predominate. The normal method by which it was brewed at the time when this paper first appeared involved the production of a moderately high gravity (12.5 to 14.5 degrees P) wort, to which an alpha amylase preparation was added before pitching to increase the fermentable sugar level. Fermentation was carried out using lager yeast but at temperatures normally associated with ale production, and was followed by a relatively warm maturation before filtration and packaging. Other speciality products discussed include beers intended to bear some resemblance to sparkling wine, beers with added flavourings (it is interesting to note that as early as 1940, one Richard Draeger patented a process for removing the natural colouring and flavouring constituents from beer by means of activated carbon and adding soft drink style flavourings; an attempt was made to market products made according to Mr. Draeger's patent, but they were banned in several US states as being more attractive to children than was considered appropriate in an alcoholic beverage), low calorie beers and low carbohydrate/high alcohol beers.
Keywords : beer brewing composition properties