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Tech. Q. Master Brew. Assoc. Am., 1994, 31(2), 54-57.
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Yeast propagation plants - development in relationship to history, process and construction.

Andersen, A.

Abstract
The development of brewers' yeast propagation equipment, from the original system devised by E.C. Hansen at the Carlsberg Brewery in Copenhagen in the 1880s to modern automatic single tank systems, is reviewed. Aspects discussed include variants in operating procedure (e.g. whether the wort in which the yeast is propagated is heat sterilized and cooled in the propagation tank or in a separate vessel), tank geometry, heating, cooling and cleaning facilities, valves, pipework, process control systems and the matching of propagation plant design to the requirements of the brewery concerned.
Keywords : brewers' yeast design equipment propagation survey