The colouring and flavouring properties of speciality malts are responsible for the distinctive characteristics of many traditional beer styles. The production methods, colour ratings on the American Society of Brewing Chemists and European Brewery Convention scales, principal flavour notes and flavouring compounds are described for caramalts and crystal malts (produced by adding a final high temperature phase to the kilning of green malt) and amber, chocolate and black malts (produced by roasting ordinary pale malt), as well as roasted barley, which although unmalted is generally included with dark malts since it serves a similar purpose. Flavour, colour and the main factors influencing colour formation are discussed together with quality control during coloured malt production. Other speciality malts (Vienna, Munich, wheat, rye, triticale, sorghum and oat malts) are briefly discussed.
Keywords : colour dark malt flavour kilning roasting survey