Currently, the yearly production of beer in Czechoslovakia is about 22,000,000 hl, with a significant part of the beer production being exported. The consumption per head of population is 143 litre. The Pilsner Urquell Brewery producing 1,300,000 hl. is amongst the largest breweries in Czechoslovakia, with about 30% for export. Production of beer in Pilsen has a long tradition dating from the 13th century. The experience gained in the following centuries resulted in foundation of the Pilsner Urquell brewery in 1842 and its beer rapidly achieved fame and favour. Since 1856 it has been exported to Vienna, since 1862 to Paris and London and since 1973 to the United States. Currently its beer is exported to 80 countries all over the world. From the beginning the brewery produced, by bottom fermentation, a type of light beer which became a prototype for light beers all over the world. Both the technology and quality of 12 degree Plato Pilsner Urquell beer were the object of interest by brewing specialists. According to these specialists the 12 degree Plato Pilsner Urquell beer derives its extraordinary quality from both the local conditions and raw materials and the special brewing technology. The technology of this type of beer was fixed in the years between 1870 and 1880 and production has kept to the basic original principles: Brewing kettles of the average volume of 180 hectolitres heated by direct fire resulting in intensive boiling of the wort; the cooling of the wort in a shallow layer on open coolships; main fermentation in wooden tanks of 25 hectolitres each; and storage in tanks averaging 40 hectolitres each. The 12 degree Plato Pilsner Urquell beer has maintained for many years both its characteristic taste and analytical values: it is characterised by 'full body flavour' and a pronounced but agreeable hop bitterness; moderately fermented with a high degree of the real extract; isohumulones over 40 ppb; tannins over 200 ppm; and good reducing power and low values of ITT.
Keywords: beer brewing export history lager Pilsner