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Tech. Q. Master Brew. Assoc. Am., July/Aug./Sept. 1975, 12(3), 138-145 English
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Technological influences on pyruvate formation during fermentation.

Jost, P. and Piendl, A.

Abstract
The pyruvate content of beer significantly affects the hydrogen ion concentration, buffering capacity and flavour of beer. Low fermentation temperatures (7 to 9 degrees C or 45 to 48 degrees F) and normal oxygenation of pitching wort (6 to 8 mg oxygen per litre) are pre requisites if low pyruvate secretion by yeast during fermentation is required. The pitching rate as well as the yeast strain are less important. The following eight technological features account for 90% of the formation of pyruvate during fermentation: absorbed potassium, absorbed sarcosine, absorbed zinc, fermented maltotriose, absorbed alanine, absorbed methionine, absorbed iron and absorbed calcium.
Keywords: beer brewery fermentation oxygenation pyruvate temperature wort