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Tech. Q. Master Brew. Assoc. Am., 1974, 11(1), 31-34. English
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Factors affecting wort extract and attenuation.

Hamilton, D.M. and Lewis, M.J.

Abstract
The temperature of mashing affects wort extract and attenuation. Low temperature mashes yield low extract which attenuates well. High temperature mashes have high extract but lower attenuation. The temperature optimum appears to be 62.5 degrees C. Extract and attenuation develop rapidly during mashing and there are some significant time/temperature relationships. Malt dilution by adjunct replacement has a greater temperature dependent effect on wort attenuation than on extract. In malt and during mashing beta amylase is the critical enzyme.
Keywords: amylase attenuation enzyme extract fermentation mashing properties temperature wort