The national desire for water quality improvement requires high level removal of pollutants from wastes discharged to our rivers. Economic considerations demand a careful look at water reuse and conservation prior to consideration of effluent disposal. This has already been achieved in many cases in the brewing industry. The aquatic environment and the consequences of organic pollution are discussed in this paper. Examples of in-plant control specific to the brewery industry are presented. The concepts and principles governing available treatment methods are developed and considerations relative to brewery waste treatment discussed.